Institutional arrangements within the framework of political liberalisation in Morocco
The objective of this working paper is to study the institutional arrangements that Morocco has enjoyed. This is based on subtle political balances that everyone, from the top to the bottom of the social hierarchy—from the king at the top to the electors at the base—is trying to preserve. Such stability is also founded on judicial norms mixing specific practices with a monarchy that is hundreds of years’ old and foreign influences emanating from countries throughout the Mediterranean, every time this was felt necessary. Far from seeking a paradox at all costs, it is perhaps the ancient character itself of the Sherifian kingdom and the strong traditions it is founded upon, that have made it easier to abandon a number of elements that do not seem adapted to modern times. It is only within the framework of a pact between the monarch, the whole of the political class, and the entire nation that this policy of reform can be shown to have achieved complete success.
Assessing Regional Integration in the Euro-Mediterranean: A Multi-Dimensional Regional Integration Matrix EMEA Study
The developments in the Euro-Mediterranean region during the last decade highlight a trend towards more fragmentation, which is widening. The COVID-19 crisis put further pressure on the region and fundamentally questioned the process of regional integration, with the enforcement of lockdowns and mobility restrictions and the overall disruption of global value chains.
In view of this context, the objective of this study is to propose a Regional Integration Matrix (RIM) to assess the regional integration process in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The remainder of the study is organised as follows: the first chapter discusses regional integration and its monitoring at a conceptual level, based on a survey of relevant academic literature.
The second chapter builds on and updates the work done by the lead author providing a brief history of Euro-Mediterranean integration, before turning to the question of whether past initiatives have led to economic catch-up between lower and higher income countries in the region. The third chapter proposes the Regional Integration Matrix (RIM) to monitor regional integration in the Euro-Mediterranean.
Digitalisation and Firm Performance: Evidence from Tunisian SMEs