Trade and investment in the Mediterranean: Country and regional perspectives
The Southern Mediterranean region is economically closely linked to the EU. Both regions have sought to tighten this relationship via preferential trade agreements. Along four case countries, namely Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, this study provides an overview of the current state and trend of trade flows vis-à-vis the EU. The four country reports evaluate the process of trade liberalization and its impact on trade with the EU and the rest of the world. Recently, liberalisation efforts have been channeled into the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements (DCFTAs), which focus on non-tariff barriers and investment obstacles. The study emphasises that while impact assessment reports predict large economic gains for the Southern Mediterranean region from DCFTAs, negotiation have lately slowed down. The DCFTAs may have a large potential but the right sequencing and velocity need to be carefully established and prepared to ensure that the society at large benefits.
Institutions and labour markets in the Southern Mediterranean countries – A survey of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco & Tunisia
This paper provides a survey of the institutional environment in which labour markets in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia are embedded. The paper presents an overview of the main recent demographic and employment trends. It then provides a comprehensive analysis of those sections in the constitutions of the four countries and of the various labour laws and regulations that are relevant for employment and social justice. In addition, the paper explores the role of informal institutions and practical norms in shaping the behaviour of employers and employees, and highlights the problem of the weak capacity of the state to enforce labour market rules.
Youth employment in the Mediterranean region: Is further regional integration the way forward for job creation?
The employment and social impact of the global financial and sovereign European crises has been particularly severe in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Southern, Eastern and Northern Mediterranean countries have all been experiencing a prolonged employment crisis, whereas the improving employment trend in Northern European countries and related attractiveness for unemployed individuals across the region underpins unprecedented migratory pressures. This policy paper first delves into the challenge of youth unemployment in the Mediterranean region, explains the underlying reasons from a labour supply and demand and provides recommendations on how further regional integration can tackle this challenge.