Morocco In Its Euro-Mediterranean space: Cradle of the Future
The objective of this policy paper is to develop the idea that Europe, in its regional relations, needs two model partner countries in the South, as in the East, to act as the locomotive for other countries. In a region full of turmoil, Morocco, through its various advances, stability and reforms of all kinds, is entitled to position itself as a ‘pilot country’ and a ‘privileged partner’. Nature abhors a vacuum, the Mediterranean likewise! In addition, this hypothesis seems largely corroborated by the history of European construction. France and Germany are the two countries that have placed their cooperation under the auspices of European construction more than any others. Morocco remains an exceptional country, in terms of all its multifaceted advances, and it is entitled to position itself in the role of a ‘pilot country’ and ‘privileged partner’ and to establish itself as the only Mediterranean country with which the EU could develop a deep relationship.
BRAIN DRAIN IN SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES: EVIDENCE, CHALLENGES AND POLICIES
A review of the literature and the available data support the evidence that an increasing share of population outflows from the South Med region to the EU is individuals with tertiary education. In recent years, this has gone hand in hand with increasing educational attainments amongst the regional population. The latter is a predictor of both further migration and reduced concern about brain drain. The share of highly educated individuals amongst those who stay is still increasing and, in most countries, is more than those who choose to leave. Lack of job opportunities is the main driver of migration across the population. The impact of migration on the sending countries is not necessarily negative, as remittances – both financial and cultural – are large in the region and, de facto, migration works as a safety valve for mounting pressure, led by high unemployment, especially amongst youths. The key question is not about brain drain but about how to restore a positive dynamic between human capital creation and potential growth leading to job creation. This requires more targeted education policies but, above all, improvement in the quality of public and market institutions.
GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS IN THE EURO-MEDITERRANEAN: BECOMING THE PILLAR FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION
The objective of this policy brief is to examine the status of global value chains (GVCs) on the two shores of the Mediterranean and provide some insights on how to enhance regional integration. We argue that GVCs will help firms improve their productivity, that SMEs will become more sustainable and generally diversify exports from the region. To achieve this, addressing non-tariff measures, boosting the business environment and improving blue-collar workers skills are all essential.