Blue Transition Policy Roadmap: Towards Transparent, Responsible, Inclusive and Sustainable (TRIS) Development in the Mediterranean

Rym Ayadi, Carlo Sessa

This study describes a new strategic framework using the Three Horizons Methodology that engages experts, stakeholders and citizens in a participatory foresight exercise. Together they think ahead towards four entangled responsible transitions within the planetary system boundaries. The aim is to achieve “Transparent” governance, “Responsible” living, “Inclusive” economy and “Sustainable” energy and environmental goals – the so-called TRIS development model introduced by the authorsAmidst the global pandemic of Covid-19, this framework can guide policy responses to manage the medium and long term challenges facing our economies and societies.

The study introduces the Blue Transition Scenario (BTS) to develop the narratives of TRIS development in the Mediterranean. The narratives all have in common the mission of raising an “eco-system awareness” of the challenges and opportunities ahead for the Mediterranean – North, South and East – to move away from the current unsustainable development model, shaping instead a new pathway of development based on the three pillars: dialogue, a common purpose and project, regional coordinated strategies and roadmaps for a TRIS development of the whole region.  The narratives of the BTS were co-developed by EMNES team during 2018-19 to “imagine” the futures of the region. The BTS anchored in the TRIS development model guided EMNES researchers and fellows to produce the Blue Transition Policy Roadmap for the Mediterranean. The Roadmap covers the research undertaken by EMNES on governance, institutions, STI, private sector, labour, finance and trade. The Covid-19 outbreak in 2020, predicted by very few, shook the societies and economies around the globe. The propagation of the infection was quicker than the response capacity of the governments. This event should make us think about what future we want and how to achieve it.

About the Authors: Rym Ayadi is the President of EMEA, Director of EMNES and Professor at CASS Business School, City University of London; and Carlo Sessa is Member of the Executive Board of EMEA and Associate Member of EMNES.

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Human Capital, Labour Market Friction and Migration in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia

Rym Ayadi and Jamel Trabelsi (Editors), Marwa Biltagy (Egypt), Nooh Alshyab and Ziad Abulila (Jordan), Najal El Makkaoui, Yeganeh Forouheshfar and Sara Loukili (Morocco), Rihab Bellakhal, Iyad Dhaoui, Wajdi Kthiri and Jamel Trabelsi (Tunisia)

This study provides an overview of the main characteristics of education systems and labour markets in four Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries (SEMCs) – namely Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia – and discusses the difficulties facing the youth in their transition from school to the labour market and the pressure for them to migrate. The analysis focuses on the latest trends in youth education, employment, and migration with a special focus on gender gaps and regional inequalities as presented in the four chapters by the country experts in this study.

Financial Development and Inclusion in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia

Rym Ayadi and Willem Pieter de Groen (Editors), Taghreed Hassouba and Chahir Zaki (Egypt), Nooh Alshyab and Serena Sandri (Jordan), Idriss Elabbassi, Aziz Ragbi and Said Tounsi (Morocco), Soumaya Ben Khelifa, Olfa Benouda Sioud, Rania Makni and Dorra Mezzez Hmaied (Tunisia)

The link between financial development and sustainable economic growth is complex. The academic literature published on this topic in recent years finds that financial development contributes to growth up to a certain tipping point. Beyond this tipping point, financial development would make the overall system more fragile. The benefits of financial development and the level of the tipping point seem to vary between economies. Among the factors that contribute to the variance are the composition of the financial system (institutions and market based intermediation), access (financial inclusion) and efficiency (government interventions, allocation, etc.). The complexity of the relationship between financial development and economic growth requires the assessment of the factors affecting the relationship in order to determine the most effective policies. In this study, we provide an assessment of the various factors determining financial development in terms of the financial sector structure, contribution to the economy and financial inclusion in four countries mainly Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia.

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